What is Cancer, Its types, Blood Cancer and its Categories - Abbaxi Writes

 


Cancer is a disease in which cells divide in abnormal way in our body. Under normal circumstances, healthy cells grow and divide and removes naturally  according to the body's needs, but in cancer , the growth and division of cells  is abnormal. Naturally there's a countless cell produces in a minute  and removes the damaged or died cells from the body and replaced by healthy cells.


According to research, our body is making 3.8 million new cells  in every second and replaces 330 billion cells per day in our body. Most of those cells are red blood cells.


Types of Cancer :


There are many types of cancer nowadays but some of knowledge are as follows:

  • Leukemia (blood cancer)
  • Breast cancer
  • Prostate cancer
  • Lymphoma
  • Melanoma
  • Pancreatic cancer
  • Multiple myeloma
  • Bladder cancer
  • Non-Hodgkin lymphoma
  • Kidney cancer
  • Sarcoma
  • Thyroid cancer
  • Uterine cancer
  • Brain tumor
  • Carcinoma
  • Squamous cell carcinoma
  • Kaposi sarcoma
  • Non-small cell lung cancer
  • Transitional cell carcinoma
  • Acute lymphoblastic leukemia
  • Oropharyngeal cancer
  • Gastrointestinal carcinoid tumor
  • Appendix cancer
  • Astrocytoma etc.


What is Blood Cancer?


Blood cancer is also known as leukemia. It affects the white blood cells in the blood. The main reason for this is some changes in the genes of the blood cells, which cause the white blood cells to start growing abnormally. Due to increase in the number of cancer cells in the blood, there is no suitable place for healthy red and white blood cells and platelets to grow. Due to the deficiency of healthy blood cells in the blood, the body is not able to perform  their function properly and many health issues may occur / arise.


There are many types of blood cancer and their symptoms maybe vary from each other. However, the main symptoms of this disease is fever, weakness, fatigue, etc. In leukemia, white blood cells are affected and the immune system of a body become weaker/unable to work normally, which increases the risk of many infections and diseases. 


How many types of blood cancer?


There are 3 types of blood cancer.


Leukemia 

This type of cancer is thought to be caused by an overproduction of white blood cells in a body, which disturb the body functions and unable to fight infections. Leukemia can be divided into four types. Which are as follows:


First type : Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL). It affects the white blood cells of the bone marrow (the soft inner part of bones)  and spreads very fast .The sudden growth of white cells in the blood quickly, over a matter of days to weeks. Sometimes a patient with this disease has no symptoms or has normal blood work even a few weeks or months before the diagnosis. Symptoms :

  • Fever 
  • chills.
  • fatigue, weakness.
  • Frequent or severe infections.
  • Losing weight without trying.
  • Recurrent nosebleeds.
  • Tiny red spots in your skin etc.


Second type: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML). It occurs in myeloid cells, which is found in white blood cells, red blood cells and platelets. It also spreads very fast. This type of cancer spreads quickly if it is not treated on time.


Third type : Chronic lymphocytic leukemia. It starts in from white blood cells (lymphocytes) and located in your bone marrow but spreads slowly.


Fourth type: Chronic myeloid leukemia. It affects myeloid cells and grows gradually.


Lymphoma 


This form of leukemia affects lymphatic system. It is a network of nerves in lymph nodes, spleen and thymus gland. It occurs in two types of lymphocytes:


First: B cells (Hodgkin's lymphoma)

Second: T cells (non-Hodgkin's lymphoma


It affects your immune system and causes inflammation of the lymph nodes.


Myeloma 

 This cancer affects the plasma cells in bone marrow. These white blood cells are responsible to prevent infection. 


Diseases occur through Myeloma can damages your bones, blood and kidneys, resulting in bone pain, bone fractures, hypercalcemia, anemia, hemorrhage, and kidney failure etc.


 Harmful factors behind leukemia:

The exact cause of leukemia is not known, but some factors can increase your risk of leukemia.

 Including:

  • Someone in the family has leukemia
  • High frequency exposure due to working in nuclear reactors or first treatment of cancer
  • Genetic disorders such as Down syndrome
  • Exposure to harmful chemicals such as benzene
  • Contracting viral infections such as HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Disorder) or EBV (Epstein Barr virus)
  • Smoking and use of tobacco etc.
  • Over weight
  • Weak immune system
  • Are the main symptoms of blood cancer.


There are no major symptoms of leukemia. Also, your physical symptoms may be different as usual and it's depending on the type of blood cancer you have. 


The following are the common symptoms of blood cancer.


  • Tiredness and weakness
  • Breathing issues
  • Dizziness
  • Yellowing of the skin
  • Chest pain
  • Wounds Bleeding 
  • And gums bleeding etc.


Small red spots on the skin due to rupture of blood vessels


  • Heavy menstruation
  • Black stools or bloody stools
  • Fever and night sweats.
  • weight loss
  • Bone pain
  • Nausea with abdominal pain
  • Being very thirsty
  • Constipation
  • Loss of appetite
  • Swallow anklets
  • Itchy skin
  • Numbness and pain in hands and feet.


Leukemia diagnosis: 


When you experience any of the above symptoms you should discuss it to your doctor. Your doctor may take some tests to detect leukemia. The most common medical tests that can be done for leukemia are:


Complete blood count test: This blood test provide the detailed information about the amount of blood cells in the sample. If the number of blood cells is more or less than normal, it may be a sign of leukemia.


 In such cases, your doctor may recommend you  any other test for confirmation.


Blood protein tests: Blood cells also contain immunoglobulins, which are immune cell proteins and helps human body to fight with infections.